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Custom Heat Pipe & Vapor Chamber Heat Sink Manufacturer

Through its US headquarters and Taiwan production facility, Celsia specializes in custom heat sink design and manufacturing using liquid two-phase devices: heat pipes and vapor chambers.

Our design engineering, manufacturing, and worldwide distribution teams are experienced at delivering thermal solutions for the most demanding environments including heatsinks for power electronics, amplifiers, performance CPU / GPU, laser diodes, ASICS, lithium-ion battery packs, test equipment, and sensors.

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Why Choose Us?

  • Experienced – We are a custom heat sink supplier to blue-chip and mid-market companies, although we don’t shy away from lower volume, highly specialized applications. In recent years, we’ve shipped over 2 million heat pipe and vapor chamber heat sinks to a global customer base.
  • Nimble – Celsia prides itself on two to four week fulfillment times for design modeling, prototypes and production orders. Existing designs are quoted within days.
  • Dependable – We take the guess work out of sourcing heatsinks from Asia. Our wholly owned Taiwan operation is ISO 9001 certified with unbeaten QC procedures. We test every two-phase device and completed heat sink assembly – for burn-in, leakage, and thermal performance.
  • Exacting – Product shape, wick characteristics, wall thickness, working fluid, case metal, and fin structure are custom tuned for each application in order to meet tough thermal performance and packaging requirements.

Purpose-Built Heat Pipes for Design Flexibility

Design flexibility, unmatched power handling capability, and the ease with which they can be integrated into heat sinks make heat pipes the most adaptable two-phase device.

heat pipe

Because standard heat pipes don’t always optimize cost and performance, Celsia offers a virtually unlimited variety of custom heat pipes that can be quickly prototyped, tested, and mass produced for solutions that are as unique as the products they cool.

Typical power handling capacity for copper/water/sintered powder based heat pipes are shown below along with the corresponding flattened and width figures. However, by tweaking wall & wick thickness, wick porosity, and fluid loading these numbers can be extended beyond the ranges shown. Additionally, we can produce heat pipes on either side of the listed diameters.


Heat Pipe Power Handing Capacity

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*Power range: Low end = condenser directly below evaporator. High end = horizontal orientation


Affordable Vapor Chamber Solutions That Outperform Heat Pipe Heatsinks

Celsia pioneered one-piece vapor chamber designs and heat sink integration a decade ago to provide a cost comparable yet often thermally superior alternative to heat pipe solutions.



Like a heat pipe, our one-piece vapor chamber starts with a copper tube, albeit a very large one, rather than two stamped plates as would be typical with most vapor chambers. This step reduces tooling charges and labor time, as does the substitution of a single “waved’ spacer for individual support posts.

one piece vapor chamber

For applications where power density is high and the evaporator is in close proximity to the condenser, vapor chambers can outperform heat pipe based heat sinks by up to 30% (T-case delta of 5-9oC). The example below shows heat pipe and vapor chamber based heat sinks were every degree was important to the customer. By using a one-piece vapor chamber, we delivered both performance improvement and cost parity versus a heat pipe solution.


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Heat Sink Comparison: Heat Pipes vs. Vapor Chamber


 

In addition to cost advantages over traditional two-piece vapor chamber designs, one-piece vapor chambers can be shaped, post-production, into vertically oriented ‘U’ and ‘L’ configurations. This capability allows them to be substituted for heat pipes in applications where heat must be moved to a remote condenser above or below the evaporator.

Versatile Vapor Chamber Heat Sinks for Difficult Applications

Traditional two-piece vapor chambers offer heat sink manufacturers the greatest degree of design control. When spreading heat, this is advantageous when…

  • Non-rectangular shape is required to accommodate system layout
  • Heat source is recessed by more than 2mm
  • Vapor chamber clamping force is > 90psi
  • Small through holes are needed on the interior section of the vapor chamber
  • Heat flux is more than 450 w/cm2
two piece vapor chamber

Two-piece vapor chamber manufacturing using separate upper and lower plates, which are then bonded together after the sintering process, allows engineers to use different wall and wick characteristics for each half of the design.
High heat flux, high clamping pressure or some conditions where the wick must work against gravity might require the bottom plate or wick structure to be thicker. Because the upper and lower plates are stamped, embossment offsets can reach around 10mm (for recessed heat sources) and they can be shaped into any configuration along the X and Y axes.
Below are a couple of heat sink examples which could only have been done using a two-piece vapor chamber. Heat sink weight goals, for the example on the left, necessitated that the center of the vapor chamber be removed. The heat sink on the right needed to have the vapor chamber make direct contact with an excessively recessed heat source.


Two-Piece Vapor Chamber Heat Sink Examples

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To learn more about heat pipe and vapor chamber options, please explore the links down the right hand column of this page. Also, a free webinar entitled “A Practical Guide for Using Heat Pipes & Vapor Chambers” is available for download